The math environment can be used in both paragraph and LR mode, but the displaymath and equation environments can be used only in paragraph mode. The math and displaymath environments are used so often that they have the following short forms:

\(...\)instead of

\begin{math}...\end{math}

\[...\]instead of

\begin{displaymath}...\end{displaymath}

In fact, the math environment is so common that it has an even shorter form:

$ ... $instead of

\(...\)

$$ ... $$instead of

\[ ... \]

Some building blocks for mathematical typesetting:

- Subscripts and superscripts
- Spacing in math mode
- \frac typeset a fraction
- \sqrt making square root
- \overline, \underline
- \overbrace, \underbrace
- Various math symbols

_{exp}in some of the math modes. To get exp to appear as a superscript, you type

^{exp}. LaTeX handles superscripted superscripts and all of that stuff in the natural way. It even does the right thing when something has both a subscript and a superscript.

**\;**a thick space**\:**a medium space**\,**a thin space**\!**a negative thin space

\frac{num}{den}Produces the fraction num divided by den.

\sqrt[root]{arg}The \sqrt command produces the square root of its argument. The optional argument, root, determines what root to produce, i.e., the cube root of

x+ywould be typed as

$\sqrt[3]{x+y}$.

\overline{text}causes the argument text to be overlined.

\underline{text}causes the argument text to be underlined. These commands can also be used in paragraph and LR modes.

\overbrace{text}generates a brace over text.

\underbrace{text}generates text with a brace underneath.

**\cdots**produces a horizontal ellipsis where the dots are raised to the center of the line.**\ddots**a diagonal ellipsis.**\ldots**ellipsis notation. This command works in any mode, not just math mode.**\vdots**vertical ellipsis.- Greek letters from
**\alpha**to**\omega** - Different arrows such as
**\leftarrow**(single),**\Leftarrow**(double),**\longleftarrow**(longer),**\uparrow**,**\Longleftrightarrow**and the other combinations. - Set theoretical operators:
**\cap**,**\cup** - Mathematical functions:
**\sin**,**\cos**,**\ln**,**\log**,**tan**, etc.