Zalishchyky Online
Zaleszczyki (in Polish) / Zaleshchiki (in Russian)
Little town (13.000 people) on the banks of Dniester,
in Ternopil region of Western Ukraine

Page created by Roman Zakharii from Berezhany
(town 100 km to the north from Zalishchyky)

Zalishchyky before the war...General view
Above: View over Zalishchyky in pre war times...River Dniester flows on the back
Geography, history and people of Zalishchyky...

Z
alishchyky is a small town on the banks of the river Dniestr (Dnister in Ukrainian), which encompasses it around, like on a peninsula, connected with bridge over Dnister also. It is located at latitude of 48.6333 and longitude of 25.7333. Very beautiful hilly area around indeed. According to the topographic map of Ternopil region, hills over th river at theirs highest points reach 300 - 315 meters. So it is quite steep slope to the river. I have never been there but I saw once large photo of zalishchyky, aeriel view on some picture of wall calendar at home. Really wonderful landscapes and flow of the river around like island town. It has status of rayon (district) center being main city in Zalishchyky district. Zalishchyky district is part of Ternopilska oblast (Ternopil province) in Western Ukraine (historic area of Galicia). But on other side of the river, there is already Chernivtsi province (historic area of Bukovyna), namely villages of Khreshchatyk and Zvenyachyn. In terms of population it numbers 13.000 people. The nephew of my grandmother Stefania, used to live there and they had house there but it was sold and she passed away also. She was a pharmacist in Zalishchyky, working in one of town pharmacies in Soviet times.

Polish name for town is Zaleszczyki. Ukrainian name for town is Zalishchyky and Russian (Soviet period, on documents and maps) name was Zaleshchiki. I presume the name comes from two words bound together: Za (behind) and Lis (forest)...behind the forest if to translate. First dodumenatl mention of Zalishchyky dates to 1340, but considering a few pre historic settlements discovered in the area, town must had emerged much earlier. In 1761 the town was given the Magdeburg Right and a town status, what prompted the development of the town during Austrian times (since 1772 it became Austria, before that it was part of Polish kingdom). In terms of population, most are Ukrainians who live there now. But before the war the were also many Poles and Jews (1772 census listed 159 Jewish families in Zalishchyky). Poles were resettled mainly to Western Poland in 1945. Jews perished in the Holocaust. The Germans sent 200 Jews to the Kamionka (Kamyanka) labor camp; about 40 others were sent to a nearby army camp and forced to dig mass graves. Soon the other 800 were brought there and gunned down.

River Dniester at Zalishchyky area...
Photo above: Riiver Dniester flow nearby Zalishchyky.
River flooding in 1863, 1871, and 1927 caused considerable damage. The 1871 flood killed about 100 people and destroyed a number of riverside flour mills, with property and material damage estimated at 30,000 crowns.

Zalishchyky numbers 13.000 inhabitants (1990). It has textile and food industry, brickworks factory and is a resort and tourist center. First mentioned in 1340, Zalishchyky devoloped as key town on the way to Modavia and was property of Polish nobles of Lubomirski. In 1754 it was sold to Cracovian "kasztelan" S. Poniatowski, father of Polish king Stanislaw
August Poniatowski. Because of him town got trading privileges. In 1766 Zalishchyky was included into royal possesions and got town rights in the smae year. In 1772-1918 wit was part of Austria. During repeated Polish rule (1920 - 1939) it was a powiat (district) center. With the beginning of II World War in September, Polish Government evacuted via Zalishchyky to Romania. In 1939-1941 it was occupied by USSR. In 1945-1991 part of Ukrainian SSR, since 1991 in independent Ukraine.

Other villages in Zalishchyky district are Pechirna (Pieczerna / Pechernaya), Dzvyniach (Zwiniacz / Zvynyach), Zelenyy Hay, Bedrykivtsi (Bedrikowce / Bedrikovtsy), Lysychnyky, Uhrynkivtsi, Ivana-Zolote (Iwana Zlote), Torske, Vorvulyntsi (Worwulince / Vorvolintsy), Dobrivlyany (Dobrowlany / Dobrovlyany), hamlet of Hlushka, Ustechko (Usteczko), Nyrkiv (Nyrkow / Nyrkov), Nahoryany, Shutromyntsi (Szutromince / Shutromintsy), Berestok, Stavky (Stawki / Stavki), Blyshchanka (Blyszczanka / Blishchanka) , Myshkiv Mmyszkow / Myshkov), Yakubivka (Jakubowka)...There is railway in Zalishchyky and railway station. It connects town with Chernivtsi (Czerniowce / Czernowitz / Chernovtsy) on the south, Horodenka, Kolomyya (Kolomea / Kolomya) and Ivano-Frankivsk (former Stanislawow / Stanislaw) on south west and Tovste (Tluste / Tolstoye) , Chortkiv (Czortkow / Chortkov), Kopychyntsi (Kopyczynce / Kopychintsy), Khorostkiv (Chorostkow), Terebovlya (Trembowla / Terebovla) and Ternopil (Ternopol / Tarnopol) on the north. There are two churches and river port. Among buildings worth attention are Roman Catholic Church built in 18th century, Rathaus (ratusha or city hall) dating also from 18th century and palace...Distance to mai city of Ternopil on the north is at least 100 km, while much closer to Chernivtsi on the south (some 60 km). In suburbian village of Pechirna (in Polish Pieczarna) there was prehistoric settlement and prehistoric burials were found. There is also a cave in Pechirna (hence the name from pechera - cave).

During 1375 - 1772 and during 1918 - 1939 Zalishchyky was part of Poland. While during 1772 - 1918 it belonged to Austrian empire (later Austrian-Hungarina empire when double monarchy was introduced in Austria). In 1939 Zalishchyky was incorporated into the Soviet Union, since collapse of USSR in 1991, it is in idependent Ukraine. That is a short description and history of the town, all I know so far.


Zalishchyky in Western Ukraine - map
Above: Map of Western Ukraine with Zalishchyky marked on it


Story of Starosciaks, Polish family from Zalishchyky...
written by Seweryna Fabisiak (Starosciak)

"My grandmother Tekla Starosciak and all of her children, 5 Biological, Piotr, Anna, Seweryn, Julia, Stanislawa, (My dear mother) and 2 orphans that she found Mila and Kazio (Galazka) and raised, lived in Zaleszczyki. After her husband Bronislaw died shortly after the WW1 ,after he came home wounded & very ill,she was left to look after all of the children. I have always been told, that the family was very known. My "babcia" (grandmother), built a little wooden "shack" kiosk and sold "beatiful morele (apricots)" & other fruits, plus some baked goods,when ever she was able to get flour, sugar, etc. to all the tourists that came, especially, the important "szyszkas" (politicians) they were very kind to her,because they were impressed how she held on to the all children,and always give her few extra "groszy" (money). After the "boys" (my dear uncles, Piotr, Seweryn, Kazik) went to war (WWII) she patiently waited till she heard from them that they were alive & together. After she took the "girls" (my aunts & mother) and moved to Wschowa (near Leszno, in western Poland) that is where I was born and met my beloved "babcia" (grannny). To this day she still is my "hero" and "mentor". When she died in 1951-52? in Wschowa, Poland, I ended up in the hospital, could not live without my "babcunia" (granny). In 1960, my uncle Seweryn (he was very known in Zaleszczyki, he used to get all politicians & others across the Dniester river to Romania, he "boxed", "good swimmer" & always in trouble with police for "sticking up & hiding the Jewish friends my family had) brought all of us from Poland, to Canada. Today, very sadly, only my dear ciocia (aunt) Julia is still alive, all the rest were taken by that horrible "satan" (my name for it) sickness cancer!"

Family story of Byczynskis, other Polish family from Zalishchyky
written by
Rafal Byczynski from Poznan, Poland (written in Polish, see translation below):

"Otoz moj dziadek jako byly powstaniec wielkopolski (1918/19) pozostal w armii jako zawodowy podoficer. W 1926 roku stacjonowal w Warszawie i w trakcie tzw. zamachu majowego jego jednostka stanela (jakby to dzisiaj powiedziec) po niewlasciwej stronie. W zwiazku z tym w "nagrode" zostal przeniesiony do Korpusu Ochrony Pogranicza na straznice do Zaleszczyk, gdzie sluzyl chyba do roku 1935 i w stopniu sierzanta przeszedl na wczesniejsza (zawsze myslalem, ze to wynalazek systemu komunistycznego), wojskowa emeryture. Przez te lata, kiedy tam mieszkali (dziadek, babcia, moj ojciec i jego brat) tak sie tam zaaklimatyzowali, ze postanowili juz zostac, jak mysleli na zawsze, pomimo, ze nie laczyl ich z tym miejscem zaden majatek w sesie nieruchomosci (kamienica, gospodarstwo lub cos podobnego) a cala rodzina zarowno ze strony dziadka jak i babci pozostala w Wielkopolsce. Wiem, ze bedac juz na emeryturze dziadek prowadzil maly pensjonat (dzierzawiac obiekt) i zajmowal sie na dosc duza skale (jak na tamte czasy i warunki) handlem owocami. Prawdopodobnie pod koniec wojny opuscili Zaleszczyki i poczatkowo mieszkali w Zielonej Gorze (na tzw. "ziemach odzyskanych" jak to sie wtedy mowilo) a potem brat ojca z rodzina i dziadkami zamieszkali w Grudziadzu (dawniejsze wojewodztwo torunskie) a ojciec moj w Poznaniu. Ojciec zawsze bardzo mile wspomina tamte strony (np.: "co to za kukurydza, w Zaleszczykach to dopiero rosla kukurydza, slodka jak banany") i stad pochodzi moje zainteresowanie tym rejonem. Kilka lat temu koledzy ojca (rozsiani zreszta nie tylko po Polsce ale i po swiecie) zaczeli organizowac wyjazdy (pielgrzymki) do Zaleszczyk, ale niestety stan jego zdrowia nie pozwala mu na taka podroz, pozostaja mu tylko relacje uczestnikow..."

My English translation of above story by Rafal Byczynski:

"My grandfather, as a former rebel of Greater Poland (1918/19) remained in army as professional unter-officer. In year 1926, he was stationed in Warsaw and during so called "May coup de-etat" his unit happenedto be not at proper side so to say. Because of this, "as reward" he was transferred to the Corpus of Border Defense at the military border post in Zaleszczyki, wherehe served until 1935 and as sergeant got early military retirement (I thought always that it was invention of communist system). During those years when they lived in Zaleszczyki (grandfather, grandmother, my father and his brother) they got accustomed so much there, that decided to stay, as thought forever, taking into consideration the fact that they were not bound to Zaleszczyki by any house property (house, estate or anything like that) and whole family (both from grandmother's side and grandafther's side) remained in Greater Poland. I know, that when my grandfther was retired, he administered small pansion (state object) and was actively engaged in fruit trade in a big scale (as for those times). Likely, by the end of the war they left Zaleszczyki and first lived in Zieliona Gora (in Western Poland), at so called "regfained lands" as people used to say then. Later my father's brother with his family and parents moved to Grudziac (former Torun voivodship) and my father settled in Poznan. My father always spoke a lot about Zaleszczyki, recollecting those lands (for example: "What a maiz, real maiz grew in Zaleszczyki, sweet as bananas") and hence my interest in this region. A few years ago, collegues of my father (scattered not only in Poland but around the world) began to organize tours (piligrimages) to Zaleszczyki, but unfortunately his health state does not allow him for such a trip. Thus he has to enjoy the tells of participants..."

Nowadays though town is mainly Ukrainian (who mainly Greek Catholics and Orthodox), Poles and some Roman Catholic Ukrainians have their own church and parish. Contact info is next:
Parafiyalny Kostel Sv. Stanislava v Zalishchykakh , vul. Gayvoroskoho 18, 48600 Zalishchyky, Ukraine
Tel.: +380-3554-231-55

There were some German colonists (Evangelical Lutherans) living in village of Bedrykivtsi (Bedrykowce in Polish) and in Zalishchyky itself. They settled there in 1784. Here is a link about Gauers, a German family from Bedrykivtsi near Zalishchyky:
Gauer Family Pages



Above: coat of arms of Zalishchyky with unicorn as symbol of the town

ZALISHCHYKY LINKS:

1922 Business Directory - section on Zalishchyky - Lists officials and major businessmen in Zalishchyky when it was part
of Poland in 1922.
Fiction: Brevity for His Name's Sake - Story about Jewish tailor Yochanan der hinkediker (the lame) from Zalishchyky.
By Eugene and Annette Labovitz.
Geographical information on Zalishchyky - AVN based WAPF forecast for Zalishchyki. Maps and other related
geo-info.
History of Evangelical Lutheran Communities in Bukovina - History of two German villages near Zalishchyky. By 1775,
king August Poniatowski had also invited German linen weavers into the land and they had settled in Zalishchyky.
Shtetl research on Zalishchyky - Jewish genealogical research on Zalishchyky by James Gross.
Town of Zalishchyky - Coat of arms and short description of the town
Translation of "Zaleshchiki" chapter from Pinkas Hakehillot Polin - Detailed history of Jewish community in Zalishchyky
until 1944. Edited by Rene Steinig and published by Yad Vashem.
Ukrainian Folk Wedding Costumes - Wedding wreath from the village of Kolodribka, Zalishchyky District and a few
others.
Zaleszczyki (Zalishchyky) - Short description of the town, coat of arms and one old photo.



Page created on 20.10.2001 by Roman Zakharii (from Berezhany, Western Ukraine. Berezhany is 100 km to the north west from Zalishchyky) in Oslo, Norway (where I worked and studied, doing two years MPhil in Medieval Studies).
I had graduated in history of Ukraine from the University of Lviv in Ukraine and hold MA in Modern Central European History
(specializing in Polish Jewish historiography) from Board of Regents of the University of State of New York
(I did it at CEU in Budapest). I would be interested to teach Ukrainian, Russian, Soviet, Polish history
or languages or Eastern European Jewish history abroad. Please contact me, if you have any suggestions.

Last updated on 09.08.2013 in Reykjavik, Iceland
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