Village of Ray / Raj
Commemorative Historical and Informational Page
old suburbian village
near Berezhany in Ternopil region ofWestern Ukraine
Above: View over Ray. The church is in the foreground.
after a great feast, young engaged couple walked around
the palace. These were Adam Sieniawski with
his fiancee Ewa. They were thinking which name should be
given to that locality. In the end, fiancee said:
"My name is Eve and yours is Adam, so let the name
of this settlement be Ray (paradise)"
Citation about village Ray from Chodzko's "Pologne", book published in Paris around 1880
by Roman Zakharii from Berezhany on Ray road ( email@example.com)
created on 29.08.2001
based also on the recollections of ingeneer Osyp Baran from Ray (Berezhanshchyna u
Spohadakh Emihrantiv - Berezhany Land in Recollections of Immigrants) as well as
Litopys Berezhans´koyi Zemli (Chronicle of Berezhany Land), issue 1, 1994
Ray is situated at the distance of 2 kilometers from proper town Berezhany but now it virtually merged with Berezhany and is called merely "Ray street" of Berezhany. It is a walking distance from Lepkykh street (where my parents and family lives, former Raiska) which further continues as Rayivska street (Ray street).
Population and statistics of the village
IN 1880, Ray had 592 inhabitants. There were 131 dwellers also at the count court area and 461 in the village. Among these 392 were Greek Catholics (Ukrainians/Ruthenians), 165 Roman Catholics (Poles) and 35 others. However the most of these Roman Catholics spoke Ukrainian as their first language. The real Poles were the officials of the central chancellery of Potocki households. At the palace and administration, everything was in Polish and Potocki family considered themselves of Polish aristocracy.
IN 1900, Ray numbered 676 inhbitants. Among them: 535 Ruthenian (Ukrainian) Greek-Catholics 134 Latinnics or Roman Catholics (Poles, along with some Ukrainians) and 7 Jews.
IN 1939, Ray had 820 residents. Among which, 620 were Ruthenian (Ukrainian) Greek-Catholics, 80 Latinnics (Poles and Ukrainians), 115 Roman Catholics (Poles) and 5 Jews.
During the First World War, the Administration of Potocki Households in Ray (Raj) managed 23 field-estates scattered all over Berezhany district (Powiat Brzezanski). And also Potocki administered 32 morgs (a morg = 55 acres) of forests only in Berezhany district. All this administration of Potocki goods required a great number of educated specialists, ingenners, agronoms, lawyers etc. But there was never a single Ruthenian (Ukrainian) working, only Poles ot polonized Austrian Germans, in Berezhany district that numbered over 70 % of Ruthenian (Ukrainian) population.
In the end of 19th century, the richest person in the village was MATVIY BARAN. All othershad only a few morgs of field, worked as carpenters, builders, brickworkers, wood-cutters and also as court servicemen.
Today when Ray virtually merged with Berezhany, it is hard to calculate its population separately but it should be around 1000 or so.
RAY VICTIM SOLDIERS OF FIRST WORLD WAR:
Ray residents, who became soldiers in the Ukrainian USS (= Ukrainian Sich Riflemen / Marksmen) Legion of Autsrian Armies during First World War in 1915:
Mykhaylo Yurchyshyn (Jurczyszyn)
Mykhaylo Yarema (Jarema)
Vasyl Kontsevych (Koncewicz / Koncewycz / Kontsevich)
Vasyl Mykhaniv (Mychaniw / Michaniow / Michaniw)
The USS registration for the legion took place in Lisnyky (Lesniki/Lasniki/Lisnyki), just behind the mountain from Ray, near Berezhany, from where they marched to railway station in Pidvysoke (Podwysokie) and futher to join the Legion.
From the above list of Ray soldier volunteers, Vasyl Kontsevych died on the battlefield fighting with Russians at Potutory in 1916.
Mykhaylo Yarema was the second USS soldier from the list that was killed fighting with Bolsheviks near Oleksandrivsk (Aleksandrovsk) on the Dnieper, on April 15th, 1918. He was burried at high cossack grave with a great number of
people and army participating at the burials.
The third Ray soldier that was killed in battle was Vasyl Mykhaniv (Mychaniw). In the beginning of November 1918, he arrived in Lviv (Lvov / Lwow), together with the legion to fight against the Poles, while defending Lviv, where he died in battle eventually. He was burried along with other Ukrainian soldiers at Yanivsky (Janow) Cemetery in Lviv.
During the First World War, this story happened in Ray:
When general mobilization and later a war were anounced Ray and whole Austrian empire in 1914, a great number of Austrian army´s ammunition and guns appeared to be in Ray Park of Potocki. And one morning, father Theodor Korduba (parish priest of Greek-Catholic Church in Berezhany) had served the Field Service for the local Austrian troops in Ray park, where all took oath to the emperor kaiser Franz-Joseph the Ist. In a few days troops moved to the west, leaving some patrol in Ray. A few days later, suddenly Russian younf cossack appeared on horse in Ray park and demanded from the court guards to deliver him the best horse from the count-barns. But at this moment he noticed Austrian patrol rider, who fell dead from his first shot. But in a moment, also the cossack fell dead from the bullet of other Austrian patrol. These were few losses in Ray. In a short time more Russian patrols arrived in Ray and broke the door to the count cellars. After having seen lots of liquors, vodka and expensive wines, they started drining and being drunk started destrying everything. But as soon as civil Russian athorities arrived, peace came and no more robberies. In May 1915, after defeating Russians at Gorlice, Austrians shifted forward the front line back to Berezhany and Ray. Front stopped over Zolota Lypa (Zlota Lipa) river in Berezhany. Russians were based on Zvirynets (Zwierzyniec) mountain while Austrian troops were located on Storozhysko (Storozysko), Ray mountain and Babyna mountain. There were not so many big fighting here and in two months Russians were pushed further east stopping at Strypa river.
Those from Ray who died in Ukrainian - Polish Civil War in 1919:
Brothers PETRO and YOSYP PRYSHLYAK (Pryszliak / Pryszlak), first Ray soldiers of Ukrainian Galician Army (UGA), both died in 1919 fighting with Poles. Other Ray sodiers of UGA who died in 1919 were: MYKHAYLO KLETSOR (Klecor / Klezor), PAVLO SEMKIV (Semkiw), MYKOLA PYLYPIV (Ppylypiw), OSYP and MYKHAYLO MYSKIV (Myskiw), IVAN BILYK, STAKH TURKOVSKYY (Turkowski / Turkovsky)
IN MEMORIAM OF THOSE RAY PEOPLE
MURDERED BY NKVD AND SOVIET REGIME:
VOLODYMYR CHAYKIVSKYY(Czajkowski / Czajkiwski / Czajkowsky / Chaykovsky / Chaykovski) was arrested by Soviet NKVD in second half of 1940. His parents left him with older sister when immigrating to America. He was 12 then. Therefore parents found a caretaker for him who had to send him to America. That carataker cared only about himself and charged dollars from Volodymyr´s parents as if he needed to arrange the fomalities to send their son to the US. But he didnt allow little Volodymyr to go, in order to have this income. In the meanwhile, parents got angry at their son in vain. When parents stopped sending money, he had to stop his studies at Berezhany Gimnasia and started to work to survive. He became a mechanic for the sewing machine "Singer" and worked at the same firm in Berezhany. Eventually, he was also imprisoned by Soviet NKVD and died in prison in Ternopil (Tarnopol / Ternopol).
OSYP HANCHEVSKYY(Hanczewski, Ganczewski / Hanchevsky / Hanchevski / Hanczewskyj) was a musical dirigent of local Ray Choir, former student of Berezhany Gimnasia. He did not commit any crime against the new regime, but the only fact that someone was a member of Ukrainian Educational Organization "Prosvita" (Education) or any other peoples society was determining that such a person was a potential enemy of Soviet "peasents - workers" state. And such one, according to communists had to be murdered or sent to Siberia to forced labour camp for "reeducation" and "improvement". HANCHEVSKYY was given 10 years imrisonement and was imprisoned in NKVD prison in Berezhany but at the German invasion, on 29th of June, 1941, on a third day of murders in Berezhany NKVD prison, he was called from the cellar and since then disappeared without no trace.
MYKHAYLO MARUNEVYCH (Michal / Mikhail / Michael Marunewicz / Maruniewicz / Marunevich). He was BORN IN RAY on 19th of December, 1895 in Austrian times. After serving the Austrian army, he joined Ukrainian Sich Riflemen / Marksmen (so called "striltsi" or USS-es) which was formed out of Ruthenian (Ukrainian) soldiers from Galicia out of Austrian armies during the First World War. USS-es was a base for Ukrainian Galician Army (UGA) of newly proclaimed ZUNR (Western Ukrainian National Republic) when Austria collapsed in 1918. He was a "chetar" (a rank) in UGA. After the war he went to study to Soviet Union in Kharkiv (Kharkov) becoming later a lecturer (Polish cosnul refused him visa and he could not return home to Ray) at the Ukrainian Institute of Trade in Kyiv (Kiev), Institute of Peoples Education in Kharkiv (Kahrkov), Pedagogical Institute in Kursk (Russia), being arrested by bolsheviks and Stalinist NKVD later and imprisoned in horrible Siberian labour camps, where he died in labour camp Zapolyarye (= "Beyond the Polar Circle" in Russia) in 1940 far from his native Ray.
Soon Soviets arrested four young persons, teenagers from RAY namely:
- OSYP YAKYMIV (Jakimow / Jakymow / Jakymiw / Yakymov / Yakimov), the son of Dmytro and Paraskevia
- MYKHAYLO PYLYPIV (Pylypiw / Pilipiv / Pilipow / Pilipov / Pilipiw), the son of Ivan and Tekla
- ILKO MATUS (Matus´), the son of Stefan and Slavka
- SLAVKO BILYK (Bilik), the son of Mykhaylo and Magda
All of these were murdered or died in NKVD prisons or labour camps.
After them TOSIA MYRON (the sister of Dmytro Myron) was arrested and murdered in NKVD prison in Berezhany in June 1941. Her brother DMYTRO MYRON-ORLYK was shot by Gestapo at the streets of Kyiv (Kiev) later as well.
MURDERED BY UKRAINIAN NATIONALISTS:
There were bitter conflicts in the village. Ukrainian nationalists revenged many locals who were traitors to them and served the Soviets, among them local Ray dweller THEODOR KULEBA, whom they murdered. The same way they murdered the Ray village Soviet council head, local dweller KOVBASOVSKYY (Kowbasowski / Kovbasovski / Kovbasovsky / Kowbasowskyj)
* * *
Other known people from Ray were REMEZA (teacher), DMYTRO KIZYMA (active member Ukrainian educational oprganization "Prosvita" in Ray), DMYTRO YAKYMIV (Jakymiw) - officer of Austrian armies, YOSYF DIAKIV (Diakiw) - died at the Fisrt World War, PETRO BORUSEVYCH (Borusewicz / Borusewycz) - senior officer of Austrian gendarmerie and his brother MYKOLA BORUSEVYCH, senior unter-officer of 55th regiment of Austrian infantry (only after the First World War he ruturned home to Ray from the Italian imprisonment), VALERIA ZYELYKOVA (Zielykow / Zelykow / Zyelykov), IVAN TSESELSKY (Ciesielski / Cieselski) - one of the first Berezhany gymnasia students from Ray..
Street map of village Ray (in Ukrainian). Click to enlarge.
RAY PRIMARY SCHOOL (Pochatkova Shkola v Rayu)
Headmaster, tel. +380 3548 22279
RAY RESTAURANT "ZELENYY HAY" (Green Grove)
tel +380 3548 22260
RAY CLUB OF CULTURE (Klub Kultury)
head, tel. +380 3548 22279
RAY BRICKWORKS PLAN (Tsehelnyy Zavod)
Rayivska (Engelsa) St. 60
Manager - reception, tel. +380 3548 21766
Deputy manager, tel. +380 3548 22095
AVIA TEAM (Avia Zahin) in Ray
Rayivska (Engelsa), 71
manager, tel. +380 3548 21802
RAY KINDERGARTEN "ROSYNKA" (Little Dew)
Rayivska (Engelsa), 67
Headmaster, tel. +380 3548 21029
BEREZHANY FORESTRY IN RAY (Berezhans'ke Lisnytstvo)
tel. +380 3548 21410
LIST OF SOME OF THE RESIDENTS - TELEPHONE SUBSCRIBERS IN RAY:
(Source: Telephone Directory of Subscribers of Automatic Telephone Network of Berezhany district,
Ternopil region. Ternopil: Oblpoligrafvydav, 1988)
names in Latin transliterations from original Cyrillic
(English / Polish / variants) including first name
initial and the last letter stands for the first
name of the father of that person, as it used in Ukrainian:
no, including internationl code:
(Aleksandrowicz / Alexandrovich / Oleksandrowicz / Aleksandrovich)
|tel. +380 3548 92533
(Dmytriw / Dmitriw / Dmytrov / Dmitriv / Dmitrov)
|Rayivska (Engelsa) St. 62||tel. +380 3548 21420
(Liuszniak / Luszniak / Liushniak / Lushnyak / Lushniak / Lusznak)
|Rayivska (Engelsa) St. 30||tel +380 3548 22279|
(Perepiczka / Perepitschka / Perepitchka)
|Rayivksa (Engelsa) St. 26||tel +380 3548 22715|
(Pylypiw / Pilipiw / Pylipiv / Pilypiv / Pilipov)
|Rayivska (Engelsa) St. 59||tel +380 3548 22237|
you wish to write to anyone from the list above or below,
address it the followong way:
LAST NAME, FIRST NAME INITIALS or INSTITUTION NAME
Rayvkska, St. no..., selo Ray, Berezhans'kyy rayon, 47501
Ternopils'ka oblast, Western UKRAINE / Ukrayina
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2000-2020, by Roman Zakharii. All rights reserved.
Page was updated with Netscape Composer 6, at the University of Oslo
by Roman Zakharii (from Ray road in Berezhany, Ukraine) in Oslo, Norway
(where I studied and lived for the last years). Created on 30.08.2001.
Updated on 06.08.2013 in Reykjavik, Iceland (where I am living and working currently)
Feel free to e-mail me your comments and suggestions to: firstname.lastname@example.org
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