HISTORY OF BEREZHANY
Small West Ukrainian town of astonishing history
Berezhany is small town in Western Ukraine, with glorious history. It was part of Austria (1772-1918), Poland (1387-1772, 1920-1939), Fascist Germany (1941-1944), USSR (1939-41, 1944-1991) and after the collapse of Soviet Union, since 1991 it is part of independent Ukraine
GESCHICHTE DER BEREZANY
(Heute: Berezhany), kleine Stadt in West Ukraine. Die Stadt mit eine glorreiche Geschichte: egemalige Österreich(1772-1918, später Österreich - Ungarn) und Polen (1387-1772, 1920-1939), danach die Sowjet Union und von 1991 - die unabhängige Ukraine..
HISTORIA MIASTA BRZEZANY
(Dzisiejsza nazwa Berezhany) na poludniowo-wschodnich kresach. Miasto bylo czescia Polski (byle wojewodstwo Tarnopolskie) przez dlugi okres czasu: z 1387 do 1772 oraz z 1920 do 1939, kiedy Wschodnia Polska byla okupowana przez Zwiazek Radziecki. Teraz Brzezany w niepodleglej Ukrainie.
Archeology of Berezhany:
Non-written history of Berezhany goes to thousands of years depth. Archeologists discovered the remains of three settlements which belong to the era of late paleolith. Ancient people settled not far from the banks of Zolota Lypa (Golden Lime Tree) river, at its high, forested and dry banks. At the place of one of this settlements, on the hills of mountain Zvirynets' (Polish name: Zwierzyniec), remains of flint master-shop of ancient times were discovered. Here primary work tool were found (flint knife-like plates, cutter, scratchers etc.) and a great number of remains of flint productivity - nucleuses, balls, plates. Certain flint products were found also at the place of of settlements at the upper flow of Zolota Lypa, at the present territory of Berezhany Brickworks Plant. Archeological findings prove that there was ancient Rus'/Ruthenian settlement for a long time.
Medieval History of Berezhany:
Berezhany belong to the oldest Ukrainian settlements. First written record about the town dates to 1375. First it was a normal village, which by the privilege of the prince Wladislaw Opolski (Vladyslav Opolsky), was given as a property to the nobleman (boyaryn) Wasko Teptuchowicz (Basil/Vas'ko Teptuchowicz/Teptukhovych). In the document of the end of 15 th century, Berezhany are mentioned twice as a village, which belonged to Hanna (Anna) from Lytvyniv (Litwinow). In 1530 Polish king Sigismund the First, gave Berezhany as a present to the magnate Mykola (Mikolaj) Senyavskyy (Seniawski), simultaneously giving the town status and Magdeburg rights for Berezhany.
In the beginning Berezhany occupied not big territory: market square with a few streets from it and suburbs Pidzamche (Podzamcze) which means "at the castle" if to translate. Later, two other suburbs emerged: in 1570 . Mistechko (Miasteczko) and in 1584 - Adamivka (Adamowka). For two centuries Berezhany had been belonging to the the magnate family of Senyavsky (Sieniawski). This family was renown because of their loyalty to the kings of Poland (Rzecz Pospolita). During this time the official magnate historians had created a myth about their special and honest devotion to Berezhany. In fact everything they did, served the purpose of glorifying of their dynasty and strengthening the magnates' domination in kresy of Rzecz Pospolita (Kresy is Polish term used of Eastern Poland's borderlands). Behind this, there were non human overlords' exploitation over the local population. The documents show the true picture which was behind the official mask of charity of brilliant representative of Sieniawski dynasty as well as their successors: Czartoryjski, Liubomirski, Potocki magnate families.
The heavy feudal duties were imposed on the local people. According the Inventory of 1667, peasants and craftsmen were obliged to repair the dam, bridges and river crossings, town walls. They and also to carry on the guard, to carry on different duties on the lands of Sieniawskis, to provide them with carts for moving the goods. Town inhabitants paid immense taxes to the town owners, for the land, cattle, bee-keeping, the right to trade. Ukrainians (or Ruthenians/Rusyns as they were called then), who comprised the most part of Berezhany population, were undergoing the the greatest social and national oppression. They were excluded from the town administration institutions, suffered the violences, they were not even allowed to liver in town center. They were made foreigners at their own land.
The oppression of Polish nobility, their non hidden outrageous conduct were the major brake for the economic and cultural development of Berezhany. Many times town experienced great destructions and fires from the nobility invasions. Despite this, thanks to the laborers hands of peasants and craftsmen, Berezhany grew and developed. So, in the end of 16 th century, Berezhany numbered 413 courtyards, where 2.000 people lived. The surrounding forests provided with the cheap building material: all most all houses were wooden in Berezhany. In the center there was a wooden clock tower and around it the craftsmen workshops, shops and merchants' houses.
In the beginning of 17 th century Berezhany became craftsmanship and trading center. Craftsmanship was the profession for the most of inhabitants. Sewing, carpentry, wood carving became particularly popular then. Part of townsmen dealt in small trade, made the land, served in the castle etc.
The development of Berezhany as a trade center was assisted and prompted by its convinient geographical position. One of the important ways passed through the town. It led from Western countries to to the Black Sea areas. Here, people traded in cereals, flour, leathers, honey, fish, craft articles, namely in clay pottery and wooden articles. Not surprising, that yet in 1530, Berezhany had got the right to organize a bazaar once a week on Friday and a fair twice a year. In 1667, according to the royal privilege, there were yearly 4 big and 16 small fairs in the town. People were bringing for sale the textiles, arms, women jewelry. Gradually, the merchants from the most remote parts of Poland and Ukraine started to settle in Berezhany.
Economic and cultural life of Berezhany was accelerated by the Armenian settlers, who appeared here probably in 15 th century. The town with its powerful castle walls attracted wretched by the Moslem invasion people from faraway Armenia. These castle walls promised them peace and safeness. Wonderful climate conditions, traditional Ukrainian hospitality and also governmental privileges granted for the development of trade and craftsmanship. The street, along which the Armenians settled was called Armenian. The great percentage of Berezhany population comprised the Jews. Jews dealt primarily in trade.
In order to make their rule long lasting on conquered Ukrainian lands, Polish magnates built numerous castles, erected Roman Catholic churches. However, created by the golden hands of nameless masters and artists and by the shed blood of thousands of laborers, these magnificent buildings, dumb witnesses of old times, became long lasting monuments to the peoples genius.
In 1554 in Berezhany the erection of unseen before in this area stone castle was finished. The castle later in 1570 and in the first quarter of 17 th century was fortified and enlarged. Unlike other fortifications, Berezhany castle emerged not on a high, unaccessible mountain but in a deep swampy river valley, on an island, formed by two flows of Golden Lime Tree river. Besides these natural factors, the defensiveness of the castle was strengthened by the deep ditches with water and high land walls.
Berezhany castle reflects those great changes which took place in castle architecture in the middle of 16 th century, namely the transition of the castles from military defence buildings into residential defense buildings. This evolution touched not only the external appearance but also planning. So, in Berezhany castle, not defense walls but residential buildings were built along the perimeter of the courtyard. External walls of these residential buildings had canon holes. The fasades with big windows and two stories arcades - galleries which remind the Italian palazzos were turned to the side of the courtyard. In the 17 th century, at the eastern part of the castle, a palace decorated with white stone carving was built. For its luxurious decorations it was compared to Cracow's Wawel. Under the lords halls and apartments, there were minor rooms for the lords servicemen, guards, poor guests as well as warehouses. Along with this, there were battle towers, three of which have been preserved until nowadays. An entry gate decorated with stone carving and chain bridge led to the castle.
Interesting monument of medieval architecture is castle Roman Catholic church in the courtyard of the castle. Despite the mixture of styles, caused by reconstructions, the beauty of architectural lines, harmonic correlation of forms, the perfection of separate details provide basis to consider (along with Roman Catholic churches in Ternopil, Mykulyntsi and Sydoriv) as the best monument of Roman Catholic Church Art, which has been preserved until nowadays.
The central part of church with Gothic arrow like building sections and windows was built simultaneously with the castle. Much later, in the first half of 17 th century, two renaissance chapels with baroque elements and elegiac interior domes on the top, were added. Exceptional artistic value had the interior decoration of the church. Only baroque sculptural decorations of the dome interrior, western chapel and partly drawings and sculptural ornamentation over the choruses. Some of the marble grave stones and sarcophaguses of castle owners belonged to the masterpieces of sculptural arts. Unfortunately they are almost completely destroyed, namely the pair gravestone of Mikolaj and Hieronim Sieniawski (Mykola and Ieronim Syniavsky) of 1582, created by the famous artist Henrich Gorst, and also two gravestones and sarcophaguses, created in 1619 - 1636 by famous sculptor Jan Pfister. They represented the best samples of European plastics of those times. Though as far as I read Sieniawski sarcophagus was taken by Polish authorities retreating from the Soviet occupation in 1939 and as far as I read was placed in Piaskowa Skala Church near Cracow. Some of Berezhany sculptures and exponated and kept at the Olesko Castle Museum (the branch of Lviv Gallery) in Olesko by Lviv.
Who had led this uniquely exceptional monument to such a state? With the Russian Soviet occupation of Berezhany in 1939 and re-occupation of the town in 1944, new Russian authorities set a bomb in the castle and deliberately destroyed it. And all during the Soviet rule and Soviet stagnation years castle was ultimately brought to ruins. The fires of two world wars also added to the destruction. Not accidentally Polish poet Karol Wiejski wrote to defend the castle.
It is worthy to note that at the beginning of the 17 th century, Berezhany became a kind of the artistic center, where many famous artists and masters lived. Jan Pfister had his stone house here. In some sources he was even referred as "Berezhany sculptor and townman".
Berezhany castle, as a complex of civil and cultic architecture was the exceptional creation of local artists. His connection with the Ukrainian and Polish architecture can be traced in the planning of the building, in its external appearance. It impressed the imagination of people of those time and ours. With astonishment Berezhany Castle was described by famous traveller Ulrich von Verdum, who saw already not just one majestic fortifications back in Belgium, France, Germany. Polish writer Z. Kaczkowski described Berezhany castle in his novel "Sodalis Marianus" in the 19 th century. Many poetic lines were devoted to Berezhany castle by one of the most famous Polish poets Juliusz Slowacki (who was born in Krements/Krzemieniec some 80 km north east of Berezhany):
Brzezany lord in wonderful surroundings Had a settling. There among two brooks, Luxurious castle in an astonishing beauty, High chapel and tower raised high. Shining of the apartments - equal only to the royal ones: There gold, luxuries and peace.
(my rough translation)
Here among noisy parties, the life of Berezhany owners flew. Such a luxury demanded serious spendings, so the magnates exploited the poor peasantry. Besides the maintenance of "royal court" of Sieniawski dynasty, half hungry society was obliged "to fortify and repair the ground walls and wood fences" for the defense and also to keep on guard the ready guns and dust, in order to defend the town wherever there is such a need. In the castle Berezhany people had the right to hide only in case when the town was given up. During the alarm, the inhabitants of whole surrounding areas were escaping here.
Medieval Berezhany had developed system of the fortifications out the castle. The town was surrounded by high land walls with the oaks gardens and deep ditch. One of the land walls started from the bastion, which was located not far from the present cemetery and continued to to the redout, which was erected near the Bernardines monastery, and further, along the ditch bank to the river which flow around the castle walls from one side. Other land wall, the southern, passed along the road to Pidhaytsi (Podhajce) to the great bastion with so called Adamivka Gate (Brama Adamowska/Adamowki). These fortifications were supplemented with the bastions of the northern land wall and ravelin, which was built in front of castle fence to defend the castle gate passage. Two floors weaponry building which was built in 17 th century, south to the castle, was also part of the system of town fortifications. Near it, there were byres and a bit further there was a building designed for stone canons/guns' dust/powder keeping.
In the 17 th century, the parish Roman Catholic church, Roman Catholic monastery and two Greek Catholic churches were built. Noted by the the talent of the builders, they became the remarkable monuments of the architecture of this epoch. The parish Roman Catholic Church of St. Peter and Paul stood out among them. It was built in a Gothic style in 1620. Being erected of cut stones on the high hill in the center of the town, it dominated over the surrounding buildings. The perfection and simplicity of its lines and especially of very steep roof and arrow like windows impresses the eye. Besides the church, there is four corners bell tower. Small shooting windows in the church wall indicate its defensive role. Unfortunately, quite recently, in the beginning of the 1980 s, the most part of the wall was destroyed. Berezhany Roman Catholic Church, like similar buildings in other towns and villages of Ternopil region, in particular in Bishche (Biszcze), Zolotyy Potik (Zloty Potok), Dolyna (Dolina), Chortkiv (Czortkow) testify the fact that in Podillia (Podole/Podolye) area, the Gothic style was preserved for three centuries longer than on the West.
In 1683, to the number of defensive buildings of the town, newly built Monastery of the Bernardines on the Storozhyska (Storoziska) mountain was added. In 1742 it was fortified with strong fortification wall. This way Berezhany, besides the castle, had got the reliable bastion also from the west and turned to be one of the most defense capable towns in the region.
To the most interesting monuments of wooden architectural belongs three sectional Michael (Mykolayivska) Church built in 1691 in the suburbs in Adamivka (Adamowka). Its dome is of special interest since it is of quite complex form with two different breaks, both of different forms. Such form of the dome rarely occurs in Ukrainian wooden architecture. In the decorations of the church interior, vegetation motives of wood carving are used.
In 1764 in Berezhany appears another monument, the Armenian Church in baroque style. It is separated with the wall from the street. Here is also the chapel with three arcade form windows for the bells. Near the church, there is residential house with the mansard roof on filiars (pillars).
Among the monuments of architecture, Trinity (Troyitska) Church attracts special attention. This eclectic Gothic-renaissance building arises in the first half of the 17 th century. Since those time only fragments of its old walls with support sides typical for medieval times, are preserved. The church was rebuilt many times, especially in 1893 and 1903, when it was decorated with two towers and dome.
The strengthening of Berezhany with defensive buildings and its transformation in a kind of "town castle" was not accidental in the 17 th century. The town, the center of bread baking land, oftenely was the object of raiding by foreign invaders, especially the Tatars, Valachians (Romanians) and Turks. Devastating invasions were made by the Orda men (Tatars of Crimean Orda) by three ways: Valachian Way (which ran through Valachia/Romania and Moldova), Black Way and Kuchman Way (through Dnieper Ukraine) . This way, the Orda people passed through Berezhany land with fire in 1615. Five years later Tatar bandits (from Crimea) again appeared in town suburbs, where they destroyed a few tens of villages. The devastating raid took place also in 1621 and in 1623 - 1624, Budzhak Orda was devastating here, coming all the way down from Budzhak (=end in Turkish, the area north of the Danube mouth) to raid Berezhany and area.
Berezhany Castle had played the major role in the defense of Podillia (Podole/Podollia) region from foreign intruders. Not a single time the invaders took a castle, it was nearly impossible so well fortified it was. Only in 1648 Berezhany castle was taken by the Cossacks led by famous Bohdan Khmelnytsky (Chmielnicki) during mass uprising of Ukrainian people and Cossacks. It is documented that in the beginning of June, 1648, Khmelnytsky sent 70 messengers to Galicia. They urged local people to the uprisings and urged first of all "to burn towns". One of these messengers was arrested in Berezhany, others acted in neighboring Pidhaytsi (Podhajce) and Halych (Galicz/Halicz). But the efforts of the nobility, in particular drawing into the area the major military detachments, were not capable to stop the uprising of the townsmen, who assisted the fall of the castle.
Berezhany was the arena for fierce battles for a long time. In December 1655, during the Polish Swedish War, Swedish armies reached the walls of the town. The frozen river and swamps put the defenders of the castle into a non escape situation and they opened the Gates for the Swedes. 20 years later the town was plundered by the armies of Turkish pasha Ibrahim Shishman, who experienced serious defeat nearby Lwow (Lviv/Lemberg/Lvov). Having overcome the brave resistance of Berezhany people, the enemies invaded into the town and destroyed it. But they did not have enough courage to attack the castle and withdrew in direction of Terebowla (Terebovla), however their way was not long. Not far from Berezhany they were caught up by the Polish detachment being completely destroyed. In the beginning of 18 th century, famous Ferenc Rakoczi, the leader of Hungarian rebels, visited Berezhany Castle a few times, where he wrote his manifest, appealing the Hungarian people for the national uprising.
The events of Northern War, caused coming of the greatest Russian tsar Peter I to Berezhany. The owner of Berezhany, magnate Sieniawski took part in this war on the side of Polish king August II and his ally, the Russian tsar against the Swedes and other Polish king Stanislaw Lieszczynski. In 1707 Peter I came to Berezhany while going from Zolkiew (Zhovkva, former Nesterov in Lviv region) to develop the strategic plans of fight against the enemy. He surveyed the castle, studied its defensive capabilities. Peter I lived in a summer hunting palace of Sieniawski in suburbian village Raj (Ray, now part of the town). The palace is preserved until nowadays, being declared as architecture monument.
In 1709 Berezhany was attacked by the detachment of A. Smigielski, the adherent of king Lieszczynski but Smigielski experienced the defeat here.
FIRST KNOWN WRITTEN HISTORICAL RECORDS
ON BEREZHANY AND SURROUNDING VILLAGES
Ukrainian and Polish (in parenthesis) spelling are given:
Bishche (Biszcze) - first known written historical records date from 1339
Potochany (Potoczany) -1375
Berezhany (Brzezany) - 1375
Urman' (Urman) -1385
Saranchuky (Saranczuki) - 1416
Dryshchiv (Dryszczew) - 1420
Zhukiv (Zukow) - 1420
Rekshyn (Rekszyn) - 1424
Mechyshchiv (Mieczyszczow) - 1438
Trostyanets' (Troscianiec) - 1441
Kuropatnyky - 1445
Kuryany (Kurzany) - 1448
Verbiv (Wierzbow) - 1448
Potutory - 1453
Narayiv (Narajow) - 1445
Shybalyn (Szybalin) - 1475
Lityatyn (Lieciacin) - 1473
Hynovychi (Hynowice) - 1475
Stryhantsi (Stryhance) - 1578
Rohachyn (Rogacin) - 1578
Lapshyn (Lapszyn) - 1578
Shumlyany, mali/minor (Szumliany, male) - 1773
Rybnyky (Rybniki) - 1785
Dvirtsi (Dworce) - none Pysarivka (Pisarowka) - none
Poruchyn (Poruczyn) - none
List of 14 th - 19 th centuries major events
which took place in Berezhany and surrounding area
625 YEARS JUBILEE OF BEREZHANY TOWN IN 2000
On this occasion prime minister of Ukraine V.Yushchenko visits the town this year
According to the chronology given in the first volume of "Berezhany Land":
1375 - First written records about Berezhany;
1488 - 1491 the oldest Tatar (Tartar) invasions into Berezhany and the area;
1530 - Berezhany has received the status of town and Magdeburg privileges;
1530 - There were two churches in Berezhany: one in the downtown and another in suburbian village Lisnyky (Lasniki);
1554 - Polish royal magnate count Michael Seniawski founded the castle, which had been built for 20 years;
1569 - Death of Michael Sieniawski, owner of Berezhany and the founder of Berezhany Castle;
1570 - The town Berezhany (Brzezany) had 40 houses and 200-260 inhabitants;
1574 - Death of Anna Sieniawska, wife of Michael Seniawski;
1584 - Theirs sons Iwan and Hieronim died too;
1584 - First written historical records about the community of Adamivka (Adamowka), one of the oldest Berezhany districts;
1600 - First Church Brotherhood was founded in Berezhany;
1600 - Polish countess Jadwiga Sieniawska built Roman Catholic Church in Berezhany;
1615 - Tatars invade Berezhany and the area;
1618 - Other Tatar invasion into the town and Berezhany land
1619 - Death of Adam Hieronim Sieniawski (Royal Polish magnate of Seniawski family, Berezhany owners);
1621 - Michael, Alexander and Prokop Sieniawski exchanged with priest W. Orlinski, Plebanivka (Plebanowka, locality in Berezhany) for village Dryshchiv (Dryszczew);
1625 - There were 414 houses in Berezhany. Among these: 339 Christians and 75 Jews;
1626 - First reconstruction of St. Trinity Church in Berezhany;
1626 - Invasion of Tatars (Tartars) into Berezhany and the area;
1630 - Polish countess Urszula Sieniawska (of Sieniawski Family, owners of Berezhany) initiated building of Roman Catholic Church of Fathers Bernardines on the mountain Storozhys'ko (Storozysko) as defensive castle;
1648 - Cossack divisions led by renown Cossack leader Maksym Kryvonis fight around Berezhany. According to Polish historian Maciszewski, Cossacks conquered Berezhany Castle then;
1662 - Berezhany suffers of plague epidemic; · 1664 - Monks Barlaam and Theodoth started the Monastery in Krasnopushcha (Krasnopuszcza);
1665 - Berezhany Castle was taken by Swedish armies of general Douglas without any shot;
1674 - Belgian engineer Verdum together with French engineer Beauplan travelled by through Berezhany. Verdum wrote in his records, that there were 4 Greek Catholic and 3 Roman Catholic churches in Berezhany;
1675 - Berezhany was set on fire by Turkish armies of pasha Ibragim Sisman;
1683 - Church brotherhood was founded at the St. Trinity Church in Berezhany;
1695 - There were 404 houses in Berezhany and the town had 3.475 inhabitants;
1707, May - Russian emperor Peter the Great and his Ukrainian Principate Ivan Mazepa were hosted by royal magnate and Berezhany owner count Sieniawski;
1709 - There was next plague epidemic in Berezhany;
1710 - Varlaam (Barlaam) Sheptyskyj (Szepticki), the main bishop of Uniate (Greek Catholic Church) visited Berezhany;
1711 - The greatest Russian emperor Peter the Great (Peter the First) and Polish king August the Second baptized Sophie, daughter of Sieniawski family (Berezhany owners);
1724 - records mentioning the Uniate monastery of Fathers Basilians in Lapshyn (Lapszyn);
1726 - Berezhany Castle had 71 cannons, among these: 24 steel cannons, 117 hookers etc.;
1750 - Armenian Church was built in Berezhany;
1760 - Plague epidemic in Berezhany;
1768 - St. Trinity Church was built of stones (replacing the wooden one);
1772 - Berezhany incorporated into Austria. Establishment of Austrian rule, authorities and germanization;
1772 - Plague epidemic;
1781 - Berezhany became the administrative center of Zirkel (Region) , which consisted of a few districts;
1803 - New Rathaus (Clock Tower - Town Hall) was built in Berezhany;
1805 - State Gymnasia was founded, in 5 halls of the Rathaus;
1810 - St. Trinity Church was rebuilt in Gothic-renaissance style;
1811 - New Stone Clock Tower was built instead of the previous wooden one;
1816 - Berezhany became the property of Potocki Family, after the marriage of Alexandra Liubomirska, the great granddaughter of Adam Michael Sieniawski, with count Alexander Potocki;
1830 - 1831 New wave of cholera epidemic in Berezhany ;
1846 - In Narajow (present -day Narayiv) nobleman Wisniowski formed a revolutionary group and advanced to Berezhany to unarm Austrian regiment in Berezhany. Wisniowski was caught and hanged;
1848 - Next wave of cholera epidemic in Berezhany ;
1849 - Russian troops (which helped Austria to fight the revolution in Hungary) are marching through Berezhany;
1854 - outburst of cholera epidemic in Berezhany ;
1863 - Higher School (Gymnasia / Lyceum) was placed in ten halls of Berezhany Town Council (Rathaus);
1870 - Berezhany district (powiat) numbered 69.248 inhabitants;
1874 - People's Reading House was established in village Lapshyn (Lapszyn) ;
1878 - The beginnings of "Prosvita Society"(first all Ukrainian Educational Organization) in the town;
1882 - Ruthenian Student Home was established in Berezhany;
1886 - Famous Galician Ruthenian (Ukrainian) writer and lawyer Andrew Chaykovskyy settled in Berezhany. Later he became the head of "Prosvita Society" in Berezhany;
1889 - Berezhany inhabitants had chosen their deputy (Dr. Demjan Sawczak) to Austrian Royal Parliament (Sojm);
1893-1903 - Three domes Church of Holy Trinity was erected in the form of cross in Berezhany;
1893 - Renown Choir society "Berezhany Bojan" (Boyan) was registered ;
1894 - Famous Galician Ruthenian (Ukrainian) Opera singer Solomija Kruszelnycka gave concert in Berezhany ;
1894 - Sportive society "Sokil" (falcon) starts its activity ;
1895 - Branch of "Prosvita Society" established in Berezhany;
1896 - Orphanage, led by nuns the Servants, was founded in Berezhany ;
1896 Credit loan bank "Nadija" (hope) was created in Berezhany ;
1898 - The student of 7 th grade of Lyceum Zenon Kuzela (nephew of S. Lepky) founded the national and revolutionary society "Moloda Ukrayina" (Young Ukraine) in Berezhany ;
1900 - 1914 - The following societies were established in Berezhany land:
- "Zhinocha Hromada" (Women's society), "Pasichnycha Spilka" (Bee-keepers' society), branches of: Ukrainian Pedagogical Society, "Silskyy Hospodar" (Agricultural master) and in the town itself: "Uchytelska hromada" (Teachers' society), "Mutual Help of Ukrainian Teachers", "Sokil" (Falcon, sportive society), "Selyanska Bursa" (Agricultural Bursa), "Ukrayinska Besida" (Ukrainian Language Society), Branch of Student Union, Anti-alcohol society "Revival", "Society of Petro Mohyla" (for promotion of science);
Continuation follows in the
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