Major cities, towns and some
villages of Galicia:
All sites by Roman Zakharii ( firstname.lastname@example.org ) Copyrights @ 2001-2005 reserved. Links (in Acrobat Reader form) on Ivano-Frankivsk, Dolyna, Rozhnyativ, Yaremche, Rohatyn and Verkhovyna are thanks to the kind permission of the owner SBEDIF, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine
|Halych / Halicz, Galicz / Galiz, Galic / Galich: old capital of Galicia, district cen. in Iv. Frankivsk reg. Population: ab. 12.000. First historical mention dates to 898 AD.|
|..........Halych monuments and history|
|..........Krylos - ancient village nearby Halych, part of of ancient Halych, in Halych district|
|..........Bilshivtsi (formerly Bolszowce / Bolshovtsy) - village in Halych district|
|..........Burshtyn (Bursztyn / Burschtyn / Burshtin) - town in Halych district|
|Lviv / Lwow / Lemberg / Lvov: later capital of Galicia, region center in Galicia. Population: ab. 800.000 inhabitants. Major city in West Ukraine|
|..........Lviv - Lviv history, photos and links|
|..........Lviv in Soviet times in 1970 s postcards|
|..........Lviv in Polish - Lwow po polsku|
|Drohobych / Drohobycz / Drogobich, Drogobych, district center in Lviv region, Central Galicia, major town|
|..........Drohobych - town information page|
|..........Boryslav (Boryslaw) - town in Drohobych district. Information page|
|..........Truskavets (Truskawiec) - town in Drohobych district. Information page|
|Peremyshlyany, Peremyshlany / Przemyslany/ Pyeryemyshlyany: district center in Lviv region, Central Galicia|
|..........Peremyshlyany town on-line - information page|
|..........Peremyshlyany Photo Gallery - two pages of recent photos from Peremyshlyany|
|..........List of Villages of Peremyshlyany, Kamyanka Buska (Kamionka Strumilowa/Kamenka Bugskaya) and Radekhiv (Radziechow/Radekhov) districts|
|Zhydachiv / Zydaczow / Zhydachev, Zhydachov: district center in Lviv region, Central Galicia|
|..........Zhydachiv - town information page|
|..........Khodoriv (Chodorow, Khodorov) - town in Zhydachiv district. Information page|
|Terebovlya, Terebovla, Terebovlia / Trembowla, / Tyeryebovlya: old capital of Terebovlya principality in East Galicia, district center in Ternopil region|
|..........Terebovlya town - information page (history and monuments)|
|..........Dolyna (Dolina) village in Terebovlya district - info page (17 th cen. castle and church)|
|..........Mykulyntsi (Mikulince, Mikulintsy) village in Terebovlya district - information page|
|..........Zarvanytsya (Zarwanica / Zarvanitsa / Zarvanytsia / Zarvanycia) village 20 km south west from Terebovlya. Catholic Marian Center. Greek-Catholic Pilgrimage Shrine, home to miraculous Zarvanytysa icon of Mother of God.|
|Berezhany/ Brzezany /
Brezany / Byeryezhany: my hometown,
District center in Ternopil region, the heart of Galicia:
|..........Berezhany Town Site|
|..........History of medieval Berezhany|
|..........Berezhany Webshots Gallery - 87 digital images.|
|..........Photographs of Berezhany|
|..........Old pictures and post-cards of Berezhany|
|..........Electronic street maps of Berezhany town|
|..........Berezhany genealogy and history page|
|.........."Brzezaner" - Memorial page to Berezhany Jews|
|..........Berezhany Yellow Pages|
|..........Berezhany Telephone and Address Book in Ukrainian (download/open)|
|..........All villages in Berezhany district: list, descriptions, photos, history|
|..........Bishche (Biszcze) village in Berezhany district|
|..........Narayiv (Narajow) village in Berezhany district|
|..........Ray (Raj, Rai) village in Berezhany district (Potocki palace, 1709)|
|..........Urman village in Berezhany district|
|Trostyanets' / Troscianiec / Troscaniec / Trostyanyets: village in Berezhany district|
|..........Trostyanets Village: "Through centuries with faith and hope"|
|Pidvysoke / Podwysokie / Podwysoke / Podvysokoye: village in Berezhany district|
|..........Pidvysoke Village Online|
|Ternopil / Tarnopol / Tarnopol / Ternopol: region and district center in Eastern Galicia. Major city. 240.000 inhabitants|
|...........Ternopil city pages Ternopil photos, history and monuments|
|...........Bavoriv (Baworow, Bavorov) village in Ternopil district: info page|
|...........Chystyliv (Czystylow, Chistilev) village in Ternopil district: info page (church)|
|...........Plotycha (Plotycze, Plotycza) village in Ternopil district: info page (palace, 1720)|
|Borshchiv /Borszczow, Borszczew / Borschtschiw / Borshchev, Borshchov: district center in Ternopil region, Eastern Galicia|
|...........Borshchiv town and vicinties homeland page. Includes comprehensive list of villages in Borshchiv area|
|...........Hermakivka (Hermakiwka / Germakovka / Hermakowka) village in Borshchiv district (|
|...........Ivana - Puste (Iwana Puste) village in Borshchiv district (John the Baptist Church)|
|...........Kryvche (Krywcze, Krivche) village in Borshchiv district (castle)|
|...........Kudryntsi (Kudrynce, Kudrintsy) village in Borshchiv district (castle, beg. of 16 th cen)|
|...........Bilche Zolote (Bilcze Zlote / Bilche Zolotoye / Bilcze Zolote) village in Borshchiv district.|
|...........Okopy village in Borshchiv district (Castle of the Trinity, 1692)|
|...........Ozeryany (Ozeriany / Jeziorzany / Ozeriani) village 10 km north of Borshchiv district.|
|...........Sapohiv (Sapogow / Sapogiv /Sapogov) village in Borshchiv district|
|...........Skala Podilska (Skala Podolska, Skala Podolskaya) town in Borshchiv district (castle)|
|...........Losyach (Losiacz / Losyach / Losiac) village ca 8 km west of Skala Podilska town.|
|...........Vysichka (Wysieczka Visichka / Wysiczka / Vysechka) village 2 km south of Borshchiv town.|
|Buchach /Buczacz / Buczacz / Buchach: district center in Ternopil region, East. Galicia|
|...........Buchach town information page, photos, history, monuments|
|...........Rusyliv (Rusilow, Rusilov, Rusyliw) village in Buchach district|
|...........Zolotyi Potik (Zolotyy Potik / Zloty Potok / Zolotoy Potok) village by Buchach, castle|
|...........Yazlovets (Yazlivets, Yazlovets, Jazlowiec) town in Buchach district|
|Chortkiv /Czortkow / Czortkow
/Chortkov: district center in Ternopil region,
|...........Chortkiv information page, photos, history, monuments|
|...........Bilobozhnytsya (Bialoboznica, Belobozhnitsa) village in Chortkiv district|
|Husyatyn, Gusiatyn / Husiatyn / Gusiatin, Gusyatyn: district center in Ternopil region, East. Galicia|
|...........Husiatyn town - information page: history, churches, synagogue, monuments|
|...........Sydoriv village in Husiatyn district - 16 th cen. castle and church|
|...........Kopychyntsi (Kopyczynce / Kopychintsy) town in Husiatyn district: information page|
|Kozova / Kozowa / Kosowa, Kosova /Kozova: district center in Ternopil region, East Central Galicia|
|...........Kozova town information page|
|...........Velykyi Khodachkiv / Chodaczkow, Khodachkov / Chodaczkiw village in Kozova district - information page|
|Monastyryska, Monastyrysk / Monasterzysk / Monasterysk, Monasterisk /Monastyriska, Monastiriska: district center in Ternopil region, East. Galicia|
|...........Monastyryska town - information page|
|Pidhaytsi / Podhajce / Podhayce /Podgaytsy: district center in Ternopil region, East. Galicia|
|...........Pidhaytsi Town Site|
|...........Zavaliv (Zavalow, Zavalov, Zawaliw) town in Pidhaytsi district|
|Pidvolochysk / Podwoloszysk, Podwoloszyska, Woloszyska / Podvolochisk: district center in Ternopil region, East. Galicia|
|...........Pidvolochysk town information page|
|...........Skalat (Scalat), town in Pidvolochysk district: info page - Skalat castle|
|...........Toky (Toki) village in Pidvolochysk district.|
|Zalishchyky /Zaliszczyky, Zaleszcziky/ Zaleshchiki: district center in Ternopil region, South Eastern Galicia|
|...........Zalishchyky - town information page|
|...........Koshylivtsi (Koszylowce, Koshilovtsy), village in Zalishchyky district: info page|
|...........Nahoriany (Nahoryany, Nagorzany, Nagoryany) village in Zalishchyky district: info page|
|Zbarazh /Zbarasz / Zabaraz / Zbaraj: district center in Ternopil region, Eastern Galicia|
|...........Zbarazh - monuments and photos|
|...........Vyshnivets (Wiszniowiec, Vishnevets, Wyszniwec) town in Zbarazh district.|
|Zboriv /Zborow / Zborow / Zborov: district center in Ternopil region, Eastern Galicia|
|...........Zboriv - information page|
|...........Zalozhtsi (Zalosce / Zalozhtsy), castle and small town in Zboriv district|
|Ivano-Frankivsk /Stanislawow/ Stanislau / Ivano-Frankovsk: region and district center in Galicia. Major city. 246.000 inhabitants.|
|........... Ivano-Frankivsk town and district profiles (in Acrobat Reader, 0,506 MB, 25 pages! So, be patient when downloading!)|
|............Tysmenytsya (Tysmienica, Tismenitsa) ancient town (1141), district center in Ivano-Frankivsk region. Ca 20 km from Ivano-Frankivsk city.|
|............Yezupil (Jezupol / Yezupol / called Zhovten in Soviet period) ancient town in Tysmenytsya district|
|Bohorodchany / Bohorodczany, Bogorodczany / Bohorodczane /Bogorodchany, town district center in Ivano Frankivsk region, in Southern Galicia.|
|...........Bohorodchany town information page|
|...........Manyava (Maniava, Maniawa) village and Orthodox monastery in Bohorodchany district (Monastery, 1611)|
|Dolyna / Dolina : district center in Ivano Frankivsk region, in Southern Galicia. Population (1968) : 9,400 inhabitants|
|...........Dolyna District Profile (in Acrobat Reader, 2,014 MB, in English / Ukrainian. Downloading might take some time, be patient!)|
|...........Bolekhiv (Bolechow / Bolekhov / Bolechiw) town in Dolyna district.|
|Horodenka / Gorodenka / Horodenka / Gorodyenka: district center in Ivano Frankivsk region, in Southern Galicia. Population (1968) : 9,400 inhabitants|
|...........Horodenka town information page|
|...........Hvozdets' (Hovzdets, Gwozdziec, Gvozdets) village in Horodenka district|
|...........Chernelytsya (Chernelytsia, Czernielica, Chernelitsa) castle town in Horodenka district|
|...........Rakovets' (Rakowiec, Rakowez, Rakovets) village in Horodenka district (castle, 1650)|
|Kalush / Kalusz / Kalusch / Kaluch district center in Ivano-Frankivsk region, Southern Galicia, major town|
|...........Kalush, town tourist guide (by SBEDIF, in Acrobat Reader)|
|Kolomyya / Kolomea / Kolomyja / Kolomiya: district center in Ivano-Frankivsk region, Southern Galicia|
|...........My Kolomyya Photo Gallery|
|Kosiv /Kossow, Kosow/ Kosov: district center in Iano. Frankivsk region, Central Galicia|
|............Kosiv town information page|
|............Sniatyn (Snyatyn, Sniatin) town ca 50 km north west of Kosiv|
|............Dzhuriv (Dzhurov / Dzurow) village in Sniatyn district|
|............Zabolotiv (Zabolotow / Zabolotov)) village in Snyatyn district.|
|............Stari Kuty (Kuty Stare, Kuty Staryye) village in Kosiv district (wooden church, 1868)|
|Nadvirna / Nadworna / Nadvornaya town, district center in Ivano Frankivsk region, Southern Galicia|
|............Nadvirna, town information page|
|............Bili Oslavy (Oslawy Biale, Belyye Oslavy), village in Nadvirna district|
|............Yaremche (Iaremche / Jaremcze, Jaremcza / Yaremch, Iaremcha) Town Tourist Directory (in Acrobat Reader, 0,368 MB, in English/Ukrainian. Be patient, downloading takes some time!)|
|............Yaremche Community Profile (in Acrobat Reader, 2,275 MB, in English and Ukrainian. Downloading might take some time. Be patient!)|
|............Krementsi (Krzemience, Kryemyentsy) village in Yaremche area, Nadvirna district|
|............Mykulychyn (Mykulyczyn, Mikulichin) village in Yaremche area, Nadvirna district|
|............Pniv (Pniow, Pniew, Pnev, Pnyev, Pniw) village in Nadvirna district (castle XVI cen.)|
|............Vorokhta (Worochta) village in Yaremche area, Nadvirna district (wooden church)|
|Rohatyn /Rohatyn / Rogatyn / Rogatin: district center in Ivano Frankivsk region, Central Galicia|
|...........Rohatyn my personal Rohatyn town information page|
|...........Rohatyn town Tourist Guide in Acrobat Reader (0,366 MB, in Englsih and Ukrainian)|
|...........Pryozerne (Priozernoye) village in Rohatyn district|
|...........Cherche (Czercze / Cherchye) village in Rohatyn district|
|...........Chesnyky (Czesniki / Chesniki) village in Rohatyn district|
|...........Stratyn (Stratin) village in Rohatyn district|
|...........Uyizd (Ujezd, Ujizd, Uyezd) village in Rohatyn district (wooden church 1775)|
|...........Zahirya (Zagirya, Zagorze, Zagorye) village in Rohatyn district (wooden church, XVIII c.)|
|...........Zalaniv (Zalanow, Zalanov) village in Rohatyn district|
|Rozhnyativ /Rozniatow / Rozhnyatov / Rozhniatov, Rozhniativ: district center at the footsteps of the Carpathians in Ivano Frankivsk region, Southern Galicia|
|...........Rozhnyativ town and district information guide (in Acrobat Reader, 0,430 MB, in English and Ukrainian. Downloading might take some time. Be patient!)|
|Verkhovyna /Werchowina / Verkhovina / Werchowyna: district center in the mountains of Ivano Frankivsk region, Southern Galicia|
|...........Verkhovyna town and district information guide (in Acrobat Reader, 0,516 MB, in English and Ukrainian. Downloading might take some time. Be patient!)|
also that the wetstern border of true historic Galicia
lays lalong towns of Chelm (Ukrainian name: Kholm), Jaroslaw (Ukrainian name: Yaroslav) and Przemysl (Ukrainian name: Peremyshl) in South East Poland. Western part of Austrian Kingdom of Galicia (Galizien) and city of Cracow were artificially incorporated into Galicia by Austrians in 1772 and do not represent the true and historic Galician land.
The old map of eastern part (true Halychyna) of Austria's Kingdom of Galicia, click to enlarge
All the names are in German and Polish. Click to enlarge.
|Name and geographic location:|
All its names: Galicia - English (adjective form: Galician, personal: Galician); Galicja - Polish (adj. Galicyjski/Galicyjska); Halychyna - Ukrainian (adj. Halytskyi/Halytska, pers. Halychnyn/Halychanka); Galiciya - Russian (adj. Galitskiy/Galitska. Pers. Galichanin/Galichanka); Galizia - Italian (adj. Galiziano. Pers. Galiziano/Galiziana), Gácsország - Hungarian (adj. Gacsi, pers.: Gacs); Galizien - German/Austrian (adj. Galizische, pers.: Galitzianer/Galitzianerin).
Ukrainian] Galicia [in English], Gaszorszag [in Hungarian], Galitsiya [in Russian], Galizia [in Italian] or Galizien [in German]
is Ruthenian (=Ukrainian) historic land in West Ukraine
(present day oblasts of Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Ternopil). Name derives from the city of Halych (Latin name: Galic) which was the first capital of Galician principality. And name Galic itself derives from Ukrainian word "halka" meaning "crow" in English.
That is why we have a crow on coat of arms of this land. Though there is other, version of the name (more
truthful, on my opinion), that the name Halych - Galic (and from it Halychyna - Galizia)
derives from Greek word "hals", which means "salt" in English. Byzantium and the Greeks had strong influence on these
lands and it was from the Greeks that Galicia and Kyivan Rus were converted to the Greek Orthodoxy.
The thing was that Halych was rich in "hals" - salt and from there salt being mined was exported to many faraway lands. Nowadays though there is no more salt
mining in Halych and salt mining and Halych itself declined yet a long time ago.
But during early medieval period salt was the main export product coming from Halych.
Galicia (central part). Map is in Russian from The Small
Atlas of the USSR.
|Ancient history of Galicia:|
|Ancient Galicia was populated
by the Slavic tribes of Dulibes(Duliby/Duleby) and White Croatians
(White Croats / Bili Khorvaty), Ulyches (Ulychi), Tyverians (Tivertsi/Tivertsy), Buzhanians
with Derevlians (Derevlyany) and Vohlynians (Volyniany) on the north. Before 980 (when these lands were incorporated into Kyivan Rus) it was a loose tribal confedaration with political center in Peremyshl (modern city Przemysl, at Ukrainian Polish border) under Polish influence. During that period western christianity (in Roman Catholic form) was partly rooted there from the west, what is witnessed by ruins of some Roman style churches of pre-Orthodox
christianization (988) period as in village Bishche and
Transcarpathia especially. In 10 th century (980) these tribes were
conqered by Kievan Rus Prince Volodymyr (Vladimir). He
established the town Volodymyr there and a few small
principalities were formed in Halych, Terebovlya
and Volodymyr. The Galician territory was started to be
refferred as a Red Rus (or Red Ruthenia) then. The final
formation of united Galician principlity occured during
the reign of Prince Volodymyr of Galicia in 1124 -1152.
Volodymyr united small Galician principalities with
its capital in Halych (first citation in 1140, Halych is
the root for the name Halychyna-Galicia).
In 1152-87 Galicia was ruled by prince Iaroslav Osmomysl (Yaroslav Os'momysl). He expaneded the Galician principality to the Danube. Hungarian king Bela III occupied Galicia in 1189 and became "King of Halychyna". Galicia was ruled by Hungarians until Roman, prince of Volhynia managed to take it back. Roman started his rule in 1170 in Vohlynia. Vohlynia (Volyn/Vohlyn) was a principality north of Galicia. In 1199 Volyn (Volhynia) and Galicia were united under the rule of Prince Roman (of Smolensk) . In 1205 Prince Roman dies and the struggles for his legacy begin. In 1214, Boiaryn Volodyslav Kormylchych became Prince of Galicia. The political situation during his rule in Galicia was very unstable and Hungarians and Poles concluded Hungarian-Polish treaty regarding the government of Galicia in town of Spish. It was a time when firts Mongol invasion started and in 1223 Battle at the Kalko River, th first conflict with the Mongol-Tatars.
Volyn was united by the sons of Roman in 1227. Roman's
son prince Danylo (Daniel / Danilo / Daniil) took
Galician throne in 1238. The dominance of Halychyna by
Prince Danylo was the greatest page in Galician History.
In 1239 Kyiv (Kiev) was taken under the rule of Prince
Danylo. 1239-42 Massive Mongol-Tatar invasion of Batia
(1240 fall of Kyiv). 1245 Battle at Iaroslav (Jaroslaw).
Danylo defeated Poles and Hungarian there and it was the
end of the Hungarians-Polish kings in the struggle for
Prince Roman's Legacy. 1250s Settlement of Lviv
(Lemberg, Lwow) by Prince Danylo. Danylo named Lviv after
his son Lev (Leo). In I253 Prince Danylo was coronated by
a Papal Delegate. Great Danylo dies in 1264 and dark
times start in Galician history. In 1259-60: Tatar
campaigns (Byrynday) against Halychyna and Volyn. 1264-
c. 1301 reighn of Lev I, son of Danylo. Lev moves capital
of Galicia from Halych to Lviv/Lwow/Lvov/Lemberg (which
was established by his father Danylo in 1250 and named
after Lev's name).
Above: Modern Map of Western Ukraine,
most of which is Galicia.
|Galician Medieval History: dates sketch:|
SEE MY NEW SITE: History of principality of Galicia and Volhynia
in second half of 13th century
|Galicia under Hungarian and Polish rules: Dates sketch:|
|Pnolish king Kasimir advances
againts Galicia and wins the battle in 1349. This is was
the key turning point in the hisory of independent
Galician Kingdom. It stopped to exist forever.
1370-87: Galicia ruled by Hungary. Since Polish king was at the same time king of Hungary for a while.
1372-78: Volodyslav Opolskiy, last Galician Prince.
1375: Organizations of the Roman Hierarchy in Galicia, final step to subjugate local Orthodox population.
1387-1772: Galicia ruled by Poland
1425: First record of artisan guilds in Lviv.
1430-Western Podillia is annexed by Poland; establishment of Polish on Polish-Ukrainian territory.
1463: First citation of the
Church Brotherhood (Uspensky in Lviv).
For more detailed
info on medieval history of Galicia
shows the territory of former Austrian Kingdom of Galicia,
which was created artificially in 1772, with the partition of Poland.
The red line marks present day border between Poland and Ukraine / former USSR.
The true wetsern historic border of Galicia was not along Cracow (as it is on the map) but along
Jaroslaw - Przemysl - Sanok, slightly different from Kerzon line (present day border as shown on the map,
which was drawn artificially by Kerzon). This artificial border marks New Berlin wall
between the European Union (Poalnd as its fuure member) and Eurosian areas of former USSR.
Click the map to enlarge.
|Galicia under Austrian rule (1772- 1918):|
The negotiations between the three powers, Russia, Prussia and Austria, over the first partition of Poland were concluded on August 5, 1772. The cession treaty between the last King of Poland and Empress Maria Theresia took effect on September 18, 1773. Austria received Galicia including the Zamosc (Zamosz) district, but excluding Cracow. In the course of the later Napoleonic wars, Zamosc was to be detached from Austria as a new duchy centered at Cracow was established. It was to be subsquently annexed by Austria in 1846. In 1775 Bukovyna (Bukowin) was conqured by Austria and became another Austrian province, separete from Galicia. On the 1st of September in 1774, the Empress issued the first settlement patent. The second settlement patent was issued on September 17, 1781, by Emperor Josef II which also allowed emigration of foreigners. This patent was supplemented by the Toleranzpatent of October 13, 1781, which proclaimed religious toleration for Protestants. In the years to come, thousands of German families emigrated into Galicia, mostly out of the Palatinate (Pfalz) and settled in newly-founded German communities or in the cities as craftsmen and artisans.
1744-64: Construction of St.
George Cathedral in Lviv/Lwow/Lemberg (Rococo style).
For more detailed
info on History of Galicia in Austrian times
Map above: General map
(in Russian) of Galicia (Western Ukraine),
|First World War in Galicia
and proclamation of
Western Ukrainian National Republic (ZUNR):
outbreak of First World War in 1914, hostilities between
Russia and Austria brought on persecution of Ukrainians
by both sides. Russians suppressed all Ukrainian cultural
and political activities and exiled many prominent
persons to Siberia. Retreating Austrians executed many
Ukrainians, who were suspected to sympathize with Russia.
Russian troops entered Austrian Galicia in September 1914 and immediately started to subdue all Ukrainian life. They arrested and exiled to Siberia many leading personalities mainly politicians, lawyers, writers, teachers and civic activists.
In spring of 1915 Austrians recaptured western Ukraine but, things did not go very well for them on other fronts. In an attempt to save the Habsburg Monarchy, social and political reforms were promised. However these did not satisfy subject nationalities, including Ukrainians, who strived for complete independence.
In Russia, following the revolution in March 1917, a Provisional Government was formed headed by Alexander Kerensky. It introduced some democratic freedoms and lifted restrictions on Ukrainian cultural and political life. All political exiles, were allowed to return home. Ukraine gained the autonomy in April 1917 through formation of Central Rada (Council) headed by the historian Mykhaylo Hrushevskyi.
In March the German - Austrian offensive dislodged Bolsheviks from Kyiv and Central Rada returned to the Ukrainian capital. In compliance with the terms of Brest - Litovsk Peace Treaty, Red Army left Ukrainian territory in April.
Disintegration of Habsburg Empire started in 1918. In October 1918 Ukrainian political leaders formed a state called Western Ukrainian National Republic consisting of eastern Galicia western Wolhynia and northern Bukovyna. Defending this new state were Ukrainian Galician Army, consisting of Ukrainins from former Austrian army and volunteer force called "Sichovi Striltsi" (Sich Riflemen).On November 1, Ukrainian forces occupied Lviv, which triggered war with Poles, who wanted Galicia to be part of the Polish Republic. The Polish forces captured Lviv on November 21 while Romanian army occupied Bukovyna. Nevertheless for some time to come, most of Galicia remained under control of Ukrainian government headed by Evhen Petrushevych in Stanyslaviv. On January 22, 1919 an act of Union of western and eastern Ukrainian states was proclaimed, however ongoing hostilities prevented realization of this plan. By late July, Poles gained control over the whole Galicia. But soon Polish - Russian War started, as the leader of Eastern Ukraine (Ukraine National Republic) Symon Petlura signed the Treaty of Warsaw with Poles in April 1920 whereby he abandoned claim to Galicia and western Wolhynia for Polish military help against the Soviet Bolsheviks. Polish and Ukrainian forces captured Kyiv on May 6, but Bolsheviks mounted a counteroffensive and progressed as far as the outskirts of Warsaw (Russians were stopped at severe Warsaw battle of 1920) before being driven back to the Right Bank Ukraine. At that occupation moment short-lived the Galician Socialist Soviet Republic (1920) was procalimed by Bolsheviks. But after Warsaw battle, in October 1920, Poles made a truce with the Soviets and in March 1921 Polish and Soviet governments signed the Treaty of Riga whereby Poland recognized the Soviet jurisdiction over Right Bank but retained Galicia and western Volhynia.
Thus after the World War I and unsuccessful struggles for independence, Galicia ended up being in Poland again. Ukrainian Galicians underwent polonization and discrimination durind these years. One could not get a state employment if he would not become Polish Roman Catholic.
Map above (in Russian): Southern part of Galicia (Ukrainian Carpathians mountaisn area). Bukovyna (Chernivtsi) region is to the right (yellow like color) and Transcarpathia (Uzhhorod) is to the left (blue like color). Click to enlarge
|Galicia in inter war Poland (1921 - 1939), German Reich (1941 - 1944), the USSR (1939-1941 / 1944 - 1991) and independent Ukraine:|
Ukrainian Republic fell and Eastern Galicia was annexed
to Poland being divided into Lwow, Tarnopol and Stanislawow voivodships (area known as Malopolska in Polish, or Kleinpolen in German/
Little Poland in English) and this was confirmed by the
Treaty of Riga of 1921, between the USSR and Poland,
followed a truce concluded late in 1920. In these agreements Poland promised vast autonomy and rights for local Ukrainian population but in reality it came out to be the opposite.
Ukrainians were trated as second class people in Polish state, being banned from state employment even.
After the partition of spheres of influences in Poland and East
Europe signed between Nazi Germany and the USSR (so
called Molotov - Ribbentrop Pact), East Galicia
(including Przemysl /Peremyshl) was occupied by Soviet
troops on 17 th of September, 1939 (the date of
"Unification of West and east Ukraine"
according to Soviet historiography) and became part of
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (in the USSR then,
now independent Ukraine) while minor part of West Galicia
(Jaroslaw area) was a part of the provisional government
of Warsaw. This division has remained to this day. Only
Peremyshl area was given back to Poland the treaty was
replaced in 1945 by a new Soviet-Polish border agreement.
A large part of the Polish and German population of East
Galicia was, following negotiations, resettled out of the
Soviet area and into Poland. 1945 saw the end of the
history of the settlement of Galicia by the so-called
"Pfälzer Schwaben". Only a few remained, most
of them having married into Polish or Ukrainian families
and hoping to escape repression. Many who fled went to
Germany and emigrated to the USA and Canada where their
relatives had already begun to emigrate since the
beginning of the 20th century. Poles populating Eastern
Galicia were moved primarily to former Germany's Western
Poland, in partucular to Wroclaw and all the
Ukrainians living in their native lands in Poland
were moved to Ukraine (primarily ethnic Ukrainian group
Lemky) and to the North of Poland (where they were not
allowed to settle more than one family in the same
village, in order to polonize them). This was a tragedy
for Lemky people. The resettlememt operation was called
"Vistula". During the II World War Galicia was
place of fighting of UPA (Ukrainian Insurgent Army, which
faught aginst Soviets/Germans and Poles for Ukrainian
Independence) formed in 1942. "Galicia"
(Galizien) German SS division was formed in 1943 out of
local Ukrainian Galician population. With the start of
German Nazi occupation of Soviet Galicia in 1941, it was
included into the Reich's General Gouvernement (under the
Nazi-era occupation goverment of Poland), unlike Eastern
Ukraine which was formed into a separate
Reichskommisariat Ukraine. Hitler thought Ukrainians
should get no preferential treatment and personally
appointed Erich Koch to rule Reichskommissariat Ukraine
(eastern Ukraine) with an iron fist.
1943-44: Red Army fights ro
regain Eastern Galicia. Emmigration starts.
Map above (in Russian): Eastern part of Galicia, namely Ternopil region with river Zbruch on the East. Zbruch was the eastern border of Galicia and Austria since it was also a border between Russian and Austrian Empires. Now river Zbruch is administrative border between Ternopil and Khmelnytsky (former Proskuriv/Proskurov) regions of Ukraine. Click to enlarge.
History of principality of Galicia and Volhynia
in second half of 13th century
Detailed maps of Galicia and Ukraine
For Galicia related links page click here
Page created by Roman Zakharii in Oslo, Norway (updated in November 2004, in Leipzig, Germany). All copyrights reserved. If you have any questions or comments please e-mail me at: email@example.com
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