|History of Chocolate
of Dark Chocolate
chocolate history goes back at least 3000 years. What
began as a bitter drink in the pre-historic tropics of South
become one of the world's most popular treats. For most of this
dark chocolate was the only form. So chocolate history is really
history of dark chocolate.
the tropical areas of Central and South America, a room-temperature
from cacao seeds has been enjoyed for several thousand years, with the
documented usage between 1400 to 1100 BC. Pre-columbian
through the Maya and Aztec, used the drink for ceremonial and medicinal
and also as a luxury for the elite.
drink was very bitter, and was laced with various additions such as
chili pepper, sometimes alcohol, other spices, and corn meal. It
served warm, with no sugar or other sweetener, and would not be
was exposed to the native chocolate drink, but was unimpressed.
not until Hernando Cortez arrived that the value and possibilities in
Spanish added cane sugar, or sometimes honey, to the formula, and also
serving the drink hot. For almost 100 years the secrets of
belonged exclusively to the Spanish, but then spread throughout
At first, chocolate was available only to royalty and the nobility, but
later made available in coffee and chocolate houses to any who could
this point, all chocolate was dark chocolate, so the history of
dark chocolate history. It wasn't until 1689 that milk was added
chocolate drink by Hans Sloan in Jamaica.
Century Change and Innovation
the 19th century, chocolate changed from a dark chocolate drink
to the rich to the inexpensive, mass-produced, eating chocolate that we
today. The development and growth of large plantations and
the industrial revolution and mass production techniques, led to
was inexpensive enough to be available to everyone, and developed some
names we are still familiar with today.
1828, the Dutch chocolate maker Conrad van Houten invented a hydraulic
make cocoa powder, and an alkanizing process used to mellow the ta ste,
make the powder easier to mix with water. This process is now
the "dutch process" or "dutching process".
1847, Fry and Sons of England created the first solid eating chocolate
process similar to that used today. This product was, of course,
began business operations in England in 1860. Tobler was making
chocolates in Switzerland in 1864. By 1876 the Swiss were adding
to the formula to make milk chocolate. Lindt invented the conch
1879. Milton Hershey began operations in 1894. And in 1899,
and Sprüngli were formed, and Tobler opened its first factory.
the 20th century, mass distribution greatly increased the range and
popularity of chocolate, with milk chocolate becoming the "primary",
most popular form. But, by the late 20th century, and into the early
chocolate, the original, has been regaining popularity.
History of Milk
is some confusion as to when milk was first used in the manufacture of
milk chocolate. It is though that in 1672 Sir Hans Sloane, founder of
British Museum and physician to Queen Anne and George II, had the
adding milk to drinking chocolate. the confusion deepens as in 1672 he
12 years old!
seems that while Sir Hans was traveling in Jamaica, he recognised the
therapeutic qualities of chocolate. He saw malnourished, sickly babies
after being given a mixture of cocoa, spices and water. It was after
experience that he is thought to have introduced milk with cocoa,
that milk had complimentary nutritional qualities. Sir Hans was a young
great vision, but his recipe was regarded as pure;y medicinal and milk
chocolate only became commercially available some 200 years later! It
until 1820, when the Cadbury brothers eventually came to own the
they used it to create their highly profitable drinking chocolate
1847, in an attempt to combat the flood of chocolate that was entering
from the Continent (mainly from Switzerland and France), Fry and Son
make tablets of roasted and ground beans, mixed with sugar. These were
eating chocolate. By 1849 Cadbury was also selling “French”
and as this new market expanded so the original enthusiasm for drinking
1876 the Swiss Daniel Peter working in conjunction with Nestlé,
was next door to his factory, formulated the first commercial milk
recipe. As only a minuscule amount of moisture can be used
Other manufacturers were quick to follow his lead in making this milder
flavoured chocolate which now dominates the chocolate market today.
years later in 1879 Lindt created the last major manufacturing
producing modern chocolate. He discovered that a much smoother textured
could be made if chocolate was repeatedly rolled from side to side, in
vessel . This process is called conching, and can continue for as long
OF MILK IS
milk contains approximately 88% water, so it is not practical for use
raw form. Water being the great enemy of chocolate! Most manufacturers
use milk crumb, which is produced by dissolving refined sugar in milk
evaporating the water to produce condensed milk. Chocolate liquor is
the sweetened condensed milk and the whole mixture is dried. The
quality of the “original” milk is very important for the
keeping qualities of
the finished bar.
crushed cocoa beans are weighed and blended according to each
recipe – these recipes are all kept top secret! Each cocoa
distinctive qualities and tastes and blending determines the
flavour. Once blended, the coarse beans are ground into a fine paste.
this process, some of the cocoa butter melts due to the heat and
generated in the grinding. One part of the resulting cocoa paste
further pressing to extract the cocoa butter.
remaining chocolate paste / crumb is mixed with cocoa butter and
extra chocolate liquor, sugar and flavouring i.e vanilla and the
ground through a series of steel rollers. This is known as refining and
the cocoa particles so smooth that they can hardly be felt on the
mixture tastes pleasant but lacks the fine flavour of good chocolate.
the liquid is placed in conching machines. These are huge shell (conch
Latin) shaped machines, which slowly roll and turn the mixture for
to 5 days. Extra cocoa butter and lecithin can be added to give further
smoothness. This process is designed to improve the flavour and texture
final product and to remove any bitter / astringent residues in the
temperature of the liquid chocolate is raised then lowered and then
again before being poured into the moulds. The tempering process is the
important influence on the final texture, appearance and
shelf–life of the
use of different types of SUGAR, as well as different varieties of
helps to create the individual flavours in milk chocolate.
is an article so disguised in the manufacture that it is impossible to
purity or value. The only safeguard is to buy that which bears the name
reputable maker"– Chambers, Manual of Diet 1902
History of White
chocolate is a (nearly) white confection based on cocoa
butter without the cocoa solids. It also includes milk, sugar, and
vanilla. Cocoa butter is the ingredient used in other chocolates so
remain solid at room temperature yet melt easily in the mouth. Thus,
chocolate has a texture like that of chocolate but does not have the
taste. Some, however, find the taste similar to milk chocolate.
White chocolate was first made in Switzerland after World War I. It was
popularly distributed in America in 1984 with the introduction of
Alpine White Chocolate bar, which contained white chocolate and almonds.
As white chocolate does not contain cocoa solids it does not meet the
to be called chocolate in many countries. In the United States since
chocolate needs to be at least 20% (by weight) cocoa butter, and at
total milk solids and less than 55% sweeteners such as sugar. Before
US firms needed temporary marketing permits to sell this cocoa
chocolate. In the European Union white chocolate needs to contain not
20% cocoa butter and not less than 14% dry milk solids.
White chocolate can be used for decoration of milk or dark chocolate
confections or in any way the chocolates might be used. It is softer
regular chocolate and harder to find.